Canadian Corrections

Curt T. Griffiths and Danielle J. Murdoch
(Simon Fraser University)
Published by Nelson Education Ltd.
Fourth Edition © 2014

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Cover is an abstract imageCanadian Corrections offers a comprehensive introduction to correctional practices in Canada. This user-friendly text combines description, analysis of critical issues, current research, case studies, and examples to teach students the inner workings of the Canadian corrections system.

The fourth edition includes the latest research findings and up-to-date statistical material as well as new information on trends in Canadian corrections, the challenges of probation in the 21st century, and the privatization of corrections in Canada.

Table of Contents: 

Chapter 1: Canadian Corrections – An Overview

The “Who” and the “What” of Corrections?
The “Who” of Corrections
The “What” of Corrections
Corrections in a Democratic Society
The Legislative Framework of Corrections
The Structure of Contemporary Canadian Corrections
The Split in Correctional Jurisdiction
The Federal System of Corrections
Correctional Service of Canada
National Parole Board
The Office of the Correctional Investigator
Provincial/Territorial Correctional Systems
Provincial/Territorial Noncarceral d Carceral Corrections
Provincial Ombudsman
Federal/Provincial Exchange of Service Agreements
The Private, Not-for-profit Sector
Sentencing in the Criminal Courts: Beginning the Correctional Process
The Purpose and Principles of Sentencing
The Goals of Sentencing: The Cases of Mr. Smith an Mr. Jones
Sentencing Options
Sentencing Aboriginal Offenders
Dangerous Offender and Long-Term Offender Designations
Judicial Determination
Life Imprisonment
The Effectiveness of Sentencing
Challenges for Corrections
Providing Programs and Services for Offenders, Often for Lengthy Periods of Time
Serving a Divrse, Marginal Population
The Changing Offender Profile
Pursuing Conflicting Goals
The Absence of a Knowledge Base
The Plague of Disinformation
The Tense Relationship with the Public
Corrections in a Multicultural Society
Trends in Corrections
The “Americanization” of Canadian Corrections
Increasing Accountability and a Concern with the Rule of Law and Justice
Focusing on Offender Risk/Needs Assessment and Risk Management
Creating Alternatives to Incarceration
Developing Policies and Programs for Female Offenders
Expanding Aboriginal Corrections
The Increasing Role of Information Technology and the Rise of “Techno-corrections”

Chapter 2: The Evolution of Punishment and Corrections
The Process of Correctional Change
Perspectives on Punishment and Corrections
The Evolution of Punishment: the British Legacy
The Age of Reason
John Howard and Elizabeth Fry Pioneers in Prison Reform
Crime and Punishment in Early Canada (1600s-1800s)
Public Punishments
The Local Jails
Corrections on the Frontier
The Creation of the Canadian Penitentiary
The Penitentiary in America
Changes in Upper Canadian Society
Kingston Penitentiary
Goals of the Penitentiary
The Early Years of Kingston Penitentiary
The Brown Commission: 1848-1849
Developing Systems of Corrections: 1850 to the Early 1900s
Local Jails and Provincial Prisons
The Early 1900s
The Beginning of Modern Reform: 1930-1970
Post-World War II Corrections: The Move toward Treatment
The Shift in Correctional Policy
1990 to the Present: Competing Models of Correctional Practice
The Legacy of Community Corrections: Probation and Parole
Parting Thoughts

Chapter 3: Crime, Criminal Justice, and Corrections
Corrections in the Criminal Justice System
Crime and Corrections
Sentencing in the Criminal Courts: Beginning the Correctional Process
The Objectives of Sentencing
Sentencing Options
Dangerous Offender and Long-Term Offender Designations
Judicial Determination
Sentencing Disparity
The Effectiveness of Sentencing
The Use and Effectiveness of Incarceration
Incarceration as Opportunity and “Home”
The Costs of Incarceration
The Death Penalty: The Ultimate Sanction
Inflicting Death
The Death Penalty versus Long-Term Confinement
Public Attitudes towards the Criminal Justice System
Victims and Systems of Corrections
Increasing Accountability of Corrections
The Community and Corrections
Community Interest Groups and the NIMBY Syndrome
Public Information and Public Support
Volunteers and Citizen Advocates for Correctional Reform

Chapter 4: Alternatives to Confinement
A Word about Community Corrections
The Community and Alternative Sanctions
The Conditions of Probation
Recruitment and Training of Probation Officers
Role and Responsibilities of Probation Officers
Programs for Probationers
Obstacles to Effective Probation
The Effectiveness of Probation
Intermediate Sanctions
Intensive Supervision Probation
Booth Camps/Strict Discipline Programs/Rigorous Custody Programs
Conditional Sentences
Electronic Monitoring
Global Positioning System
Restorative/Community Justice
The Dimensions of Restorative/Community Justice
Victim-Offender Mediation
Circle Sentencing
Restorative/Community Justice in Aboriginal Communities
Restorative/Community Justice in Urban Centres
Critical Issues in Restorative/Community Justice

Chapter 5: Correctional Institutions
Types of Correctional Institutions
Federal Correctional Institutions
Provincial/Territorial Institutions
Federal/Provincial Joint Initiatives
Aboriginal Healing Centres and Lodges
Security and Escapes
Prison Architecture
The Eras of Prison Architecture
Contemporary Prison Design
The Attributes of the Modern Prison
Prisons Are Asked to Pursue Conflicting Goals
Prisons Are Political and Public Institutions
Prisons Are Total Institutions
The Organization of the Prison
Unit Management System
Legislative and Policy Framework
The Incident at the Kingston Prison for Women: A Breakdown in the Rule of Law
Institutional Staff
The Inmates
A General Profile of Inmate Populations
Federal Carceral Populations
Provincial/Territorial Carceral Populations
Special Categories of Offenders
Female Inmates
Aboriginal Inmates
Elderly Inmates
Violent Offenders
Sex Offenders
Long-Term Offenders
The Challenges of Operating and Managing Correctional Institutions
Meeting the Requirements of Legislation
Managing with Reduced Resources
Ensuring Inmate Safety
HIV/AIDS and Infectious Diseases
Prison Riots: The Breakdown of Organizational Stability and Control
A Case Study: The Riot at Headingley Correctional Institution
The Lessons from Headingley
Private Prisons: Coming Soon to a Community Near You?
The High-Tech Prison

Chapter 6: Correctional Officers
Role and Responsibilities
Recruitment and Training
CSC’s Correctional Training Program
Provincial Training Programs
In-Service Training
Going Inside: The Socialization of New Correctional Officers
Patterns of Relationships among Correctional Officers
Orientations and Attitudes
A Typology of Correctional Officers
Attitudes toward Inmates
Job Satisfaction and Commitment to the Organization
Correctional Officer-Inmate Relationships and Patterns of Accommodation
The Custodial Agenda of Correctional Officers
The Correctional Agenda of Correctional Officers
Exercising Authority: Correctional Officer Discretion and Decision Making
Relationships with the Prison Administration
Relationships with Treatment Staff
Sources of Stress for Correctional Officers
Threats to Personal Security
Lack of Support and Respect
The Increasing Emphasis on Inmate Rights
Multiple Tasks
Inadequate Training
The Impact on Personal Life
Shift Work
The Institutional Environment
The Impact of Critical Incidents
Coping with Stress
Female Correctional Officers
Sexual Harassment
Cross-Gender Staffing in Female Institutions

Chapter 7: Doing Time: The Inmates
Going Inside
Living Inside
The Pains of Imprisonment
The Inmate Social System
The Inmate Code
Status and Power among Inmates
Inmate Social Roles
Parting Thoughts on the Inmate Social System
Coping with Confinement
Drugs and Contraband
Sexual Gratification
Mature Coping
Doing Life
Coping with Long-Term Confinement
The Impact of Long-Term Confinement
Prison as “Home”: The State-Raised Offender
Violence and Exploitation among Inmates
Patterns of Victimization
Sexual Coercion and Rape
Inmate Strategies for Avoiding Violence and Victimization
Inmates as Partners and Parents
The Dynamics of Inmate Families
Female Inmates and Their Children
The Carceral Experience: In the Words of Inmates
Inmate Complaints: Grievance Systems, and Investigations
Failing to Cope with Confinement: Self-Injurious Behaviour and Suicide
Assessing the Risk of Suicide
Profile of Inmates Who Commit Suicide
Case Studies of Inmate Suicide
Investigating Inmate Suicides and Recommendations for Prevention

Chapter 8: Classification, Case Management, and Treatment
Classification and Risk Assessment
Classification Tools and Techniques
Risk and Need Profiles of Offenders
Case Management
The Correctional Plan
The Role of Federal Institutional Parole Officers
Institutional Treatment Programs
Living Skills Programming
Cognitive Skills Training
Substance Abuse Intervention
Violence Prevention Programs
Literacy and Education Programs
Sex Offender Treatment Programs
Vocational and Work Programs
Religious Programs and the Chaplaincy
Community Involvement in Institutional Programs
Female Inmates and Treatment
Aboriginal Inmates and Treatment
Aboriginal-Specific versus Generalist Programs for Aboriginal Inmates
Community Service Projects and Activities
Principles of Effective Correctional Treatment
The Risk Principle
The Need Principle
The Responsivity Principle
Professional Discretion
Program Integrity
Creating the Conditions for Effective Correctional Treatment
Correctional Officers and Correctional Staff
Matching Inmate Needs with Programs
Inmate Amenability to Treatment
Continuity of Treatment Interventions from Institution to Community
The Effectiveness of Correctional Treatment
“Nothing Works”: The Legacy of Robert Martinson
“Some Things Work”: Evaluations of Correctional Treatment Programs
Measuring the Effectiveness of Correctional Treatment
The Absence and Poor Quality of Program Evaluations
Measuring Treatment Success: A Difficult Task
The Notion of “Relative” Success upon Release
Potential Obstacles to Effective Correctional Treatment
Punishment versus Treatment
Doing Time and Doing Treatment
The Institutional Environment
Inmate Access to Programs
Program Fidelity and Program Drift
The Ethics of Correctional Treatment

Chapter 9: Release from Prison
T he Purpose and Principles of Conditional Release
The Types of Conditional Release
Release Options for Provincial/Territorial Inmates
Temporary Absences
Electronic Monitoring and TAs
Provincial Parole
Victims and the Release of Provincial Inmates
Release Options for Federal Inmates
National Parole Board
Day Parole
Full Parole
Judicial Review (Section 745)
Statutory Release
Victim Involvement in Federal Parole
Parole and the Long-Term Offender
The Release o Dangerous Offenders
The Parole File
Dynamics of Parole Board Decision Making
The Parole Certificate
Inmate Appeals
Issues in Parole Board Decision Making
The Appointment of Parole Board Members
The Absence of Clearly Defined Release Criteria
The Absence of Information Feedback to Parole Board Members
The Inmate and Parole Hearings
Aboriginal Inmates and the Parole Board
Predicting Recidivism: A Challenging Task
Clinical and Actuarial Prediction of Recidivism
Risk Assessment and Dynamic Risk Factors
The Prediction of Future Behaviour: Caveat Emptor

Chapter 10: Re-Entry and Life After Prison
The Process of Reintegration
The Pains of Re-entry
Back on the Street
The Role of Parole Supervision
The Dual Function of Parole Supervision
Intensity of Supervision
Innovations in Parole Supervision
Special Offender Populations on Parole
Aboriginal Offenders
Female Offenders
Mentally Disordered Offenders
Sex Offenders
Failure on Conditional Release: Going Back
Suspension of Conditional Release
Post-Suspension Hearing
The Effectiveness of Parole
Victim Notification and Offenders on Conditional Release